Atomic Number: 4
Atomic Weight: 9.01218
Element Type: Alkali Earth Metal
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Melting Point: 1287.0°C = 2348.6°F = 1560.15
Boiling Point: 2471.0°C = 4479.8°F = 2744.15
Critical Temp: °C = °F = K
Atomic Radius: 1.4 Å (Å = Angstrom = 10-10
Covalent Radius: 0.9 Å
(Gr. beryllos, beryl; also called Glucinium or Glucinum,
Gr. glykys, sweet) Discoveredas the oxide by Vauquelin in
beryl and in emeralds in 1798. The metal was isolated in
1828by Wohler and by Bussy independently by the action of
potassium on beryllium chloride.
Beryllium is found in some 30 mineral species, the most
important of which arebertrandite, beryl, chrysoberyl, and
phenacite. Aquamarine and emerald are precious formsof beryl.
Beryl and bertrandite are the most important commercial
sources of the elementand its compounds. Most of the metal
is now prepared by reducing beryllium fluoride withmagnesium
metal. Beryllium metal did not become readily available
to industry until 1957.
Precious forms of beryllium include aquamarine, morganite,
and emerald. Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in producing
beryllium copper, which is used for springs, electrical
contacts, nonsparking tools, and spot-welding electrodes.
It is used in many structural components of the space shuttle
and other aerospace craft. Beryllium foil is used in x-ray
lithography for making integrated circuits. It is used as
a reflector or moderator in nuclear reactions. Beryllium
is used in gyroscopes and computer parts. The oxide has
a very high melting point and is used in ceramics and nuclear