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Hydrogen

H

Atomic Number: 1
Atomic Weight: 1.00794
Element Type: Non-Metal
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Melting Point: -259.34°C = -434.812°F = 13.81 K
Boiling Point: -353.87°C = -604.966°F = -80.72 K
Critical Temp: -240.18°C = -400.324°F = 32.97 K
Atomic Radius: 0.79 Å (Å = Angstrom = 10-10 m)
Covalent Radius: 0.32 Å
Electronegativity: 2.2

Discovery

(Gr. hydro, water, and genes, forming) Hydrogen was prepared many years before it was recognized as a distinct substance by Cavendish in 1776.

Named by Lavoisier, hydrogen is the most abundant of all elements in the universe. The heavier elements were originally made from Hydrogen or from other elements that wereoriginally made from Hydrogen.

Sources

Hydrogen occurs in the free state in volcanic gases and some natural gases. Hydrogen is prepared by steam on heated carbon, decomposition of certain hydrocarbons with heat, action of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum electrolysis of water, or displacement from acids by certain metals.Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe although it is not present in our atmosphere.

Uses
Hydrogen is important in the proton-proton reaction and carbon-nitrogen cycle. Liquid hydrogen is used in cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity. Great quantities are used for the fixation of nitrogen from the air in the Haber ammonia process. Hydrogen is use in welding, for the hydrogenation of fats and oils, in methanol production, in hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulfurization. Other applications include producing rocket fuel, filling balloons, making fuel cells, producing hydrochloric acid, and reducing metallic ores. Deuterium is used as a moderator to slow down neutrons and as a tracer. Tritium is used in the production of the hydrogen (fusion) bomb. Tritium is also used in making luminous paints and as a tracer.


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