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Magnesium

Mg

Atomic Number: 12
Atomic Weight: 24.305
Element Type: Alkali Earth Metal
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Melting Point: 650.0°C = 1202.0°F = 923.15 K
Boiling Point: 1090.0°C = 1994.0°F = 1363.15 K
Critical Temp: °C = °F = K
Atomic Radius: 1.72 Å (Å = Angstrom = 10-10 m)
Covalent Radius: 1.36 Å
Electronegativity: 1.31

Discovery

(Magnesia, district in Thessaly) Compounds of magnesium have long been known. Blackrecognized magnesium as an element in 1755. Davy isolated it in 1808 and Bussy prepared itin coherent form in 1831. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth'scrust. It does not occur uncombined, but is found in large deposits in the form ofmagnesite, dolomite, and other minerals.

Sources

Magnesium is the 8th most abundant element in the earth's crust. While it is not found free it nature, it is available in minerals including magnesite and dolomite. The metal may be obtained by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride derived from brines and seawater.

Uses
Magnesium is used in pyrotechnic and incendiary devices. It is alloyed with other metals to make them lighter and more easily welded, with applications in the aerospace industry. Magnesium is added to many propellents. It is used as a reducing agent in the preparation of uranium and other metals that are purified from their salts. Magnesite is used in refactories. Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), sulfate (Epsom salts), chloride, and citrate are used in medicine. Organic magnesium compounds have many uses. Magnesium is essential for plant and animal nutrition. Chlorophyll is a magnesium-centered porphyrin.


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