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Atomic Number: 3
Atomic Weight: 6.94
Element Type: Alkali Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic Face Centered
Melting Point: 180.5°C = 356.9°F = 453.65 K
Boiling Point: 1342.0°C = 2447.6°F = 1615.15 K
Critical Temp: °C = °F = K
Atomic Radius: 2.05 Å (Å = Angstrom = 10-10 m)
Covalent Radius: 1.23 Å
Electronegativity: 0.98


(Gr. lithos, stone) Discovered by Arfvedson in 1817. Lithium is the lightest of allmetals, with a density only about half that of water.


Lithium does not occur free in nature. It is found in small amounts in practically all igneous rocks and in the waters of mineral springs. The minerals that contain lithium include lepidolite, petalite, amblygonite, and spodumene. Lithium metal is produced electrolytically from the fused chloride.

Lithium is used in heat transfer applications. It is used as an alloying agent, in synthesizing organic compounds, and is added to glasses and ceramics. Its high electrochemical potential makes it useful for battery anodes. Lithium chloride and lithium bromide are highly hygroscopic, so are used as drying agents. Lithium stearate is used as a high-temperature lubricant. Lithium has medical applications, as well.

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